Faculty of Science would like to welcome newly admitted
postgraduate students to fruitful and exciting years of
the Faculty of Science postgraduate studies are an important
component, with growing importance. Postgraduate students
are a valuable resource in the development of the faculty.
They provide a continuous source of intellectual stimulation
leading to renewal of the activities and social change in
our departments. In addition, after completion of their
degrees, doctors enter new activities in society where they
can help to create contacts between the faculty and industry,
government authorities and schools.
faculty places high priority on both the educational and
the scientific aspects of postgraduate studies. We obtain
substantial funding for these studies from external agencies
and they support approximately one half of the postgraduate
students at the faculty. This high proportion of external
support is a token of the high regard in which postgraduate
education at the faculty is held.
handbook has been produced by the Board for Postgraduate
Studies at the Faculty of Science (fakultetens
forskarutbildningsnämnd). The primary objective
is to provide information for new postgraduate students,
but our hope is that it may also serve as a source of information
for those considering applying to the faculty as a postgraduate
student. Furthermore, supervisors and other employees may
also find some useful information here. We invite comments
on this handbook as it will be regularly updated (e-mail:
most recent version in Swedish can be found on the facultys
web site: www.naturvetenskap.lu.se
under the heading För våra forskarstuderande".
studies at universities in Sweden must comply with the rules
and regulations laid down by the Swedish Government. The
basic legislation in this respect is the Higher Education
In addition, the government has specified rules in the Higher
Education Ordinance (Högskoleförordningen)
that apply throughout Sweden, independent of the subject
university may also specify rules that apply locally, but
are common to all subjects at that university. At Lund University,
this has been done both by the University Board and by the
Each faculty can apply rules that are motivated by the special
character of the postgraduate studies in the disciplines
for which they are responsible. At the Faculty of Science
it is the Faculty Board that defines these rules. For matters
of a more detailed/practical character the Faculty Board
can delegate the formulation of additional rules to lower
levels in the hierarchy.
head of department (prefekt)
is ultimately responsible for postgraduate education at
that department. The majority of matters, such as responsibility
for postgraduate student recruiting and course curriculum,
are delegated to the head of the department. However, for
individual postgraduate students it is, in practice, the
supervisor who has greatest influence on the content of
Faculty of Science is one of seven areas at the university.
The others are:
Lund Institute of Technology (Lunds
Faculty of Law (Juridiska
Faculty of Social Sciences (Samhällsvetenskapliga
School of Medicine (Medicinska
Faculty of Arts and Theology (Humanistiska
och teologiska fakulteten)
Theatre and the Arts (Konstnärliga
Faculty of Science is presently divided into three subject
areas, each headed by a dean:
Faculty Board is the governing body of the faculty and is
ultimately responsible for basic education, postgraduate
studies, research and external contacts/information (tredje
uppgiften). The board has 13 members: 8 representing
the staff, 2 representing society (not active at the university)
and 3 student representatives. Unions have the right to
have observers present at board meetings. The dean of the
faculty is responsible for the daily running of the faculty.
The board delegates a large number of matters to other bodies
within the faculty.
Faculty Board is responsible for ensuring that postgraduate
education is conducted effectively, is of high quality and
is conducted in compliance with the current laws and regulations.
It is also responsible for the distribution of sufficient
funds, within the prevailing constraints, to postgraduate
education to ensure that the goals specified are attained.
In practice, this means that the board should stimulate
and support the departments in their efforts to provide
the best possible postgraduate education, through general
as well as specific measures.
help in running the faculty, the Faculty Board has constituted
a number of committees that report to the board. These include:
the Committee for Undergraduate Education (utbildningsnämnden),
a number of appointments boards (lärarförslagsnämnder),
the Board for Postgraduate Studies (forskarutbildningsnämnden),
the Working Environment Committee (arbetsmiljönämnden)
and departmental boards (institutionsstyrelser).
Committee for Undergraduate Education has 14 members: 6
teachers, 6 students and 2 representatives from society.
It is headed by the Dean for Undergraduate Studies and is
responsible for undergraduate studies.
main responsibility of the appointments boards is to manage
the recruitment of tenured staff members. There is one appointments
board for each of the subject areas in the faculty, and
each consists of four representatives from among the teaching
staff and two students. The chairmen of the appointments
boards are the respective deans of the subject areas.
committee jointly represents both the Faculty of Science
and the Lund Institute of Technology (LTH)
(The Faculty of Engineering) and deals with issues related
to the working conditions at the university which are relevant
for both students and employees.
Board for Postgraduate Studies is responsible for all general
questions concerned with postgraduate studies, under the
auspices of the Faculty Board. The Board for Postgraduate
Studies either makes decisions directly or presents an issue
to be decided by the Faculty Board. The practical responsibilities
of the Board for Postgraduate Studies are:
To develop guidelines for the formulation of individual
To ensure that the curricula for the various postgraduate
disciplines are updated
To update the Handbook for Postgraduate Studies
To ensure that decisions made by the Faculty Board
regarding postgraduate studies are implemented. (This involves
issues such as admissions, financial support and follow-up.)
To increase the number of postgraduate courses of
To ensure that supervisors are given the opportunity
for continued education in teaching skills, with special
emphasis on postgraduate education
To support the interests of postgraduate students
within the faculty
Board for Postgraduate Studies consists of three representatives
from the teaching staff and three postgraduate student representatives.
It also has an affiliated secretary. The names and addresses
of the current members of the board can be found on the
facultys web site.
department is responsible for organising postgraduate studies
within that department. The head of department (prefekten)
is generally responsible for the activities at the department,
including the use of resources and personnel matters. As
a consequence, he or she is also responsible for the organisation
of postgraduate studies, including the admission of postgraduate
students. In many, but not all cases, there is also a departmental
board which works in cooperation with the head of department.
delegated to the departments by the Faculty Board are:
The admission of postgraduate students, which involves
an economic commitment to support the student
Ensuring that the student has reasonable resources
with which to pursue his or her research
Ensuring that an individual curriculum (individuell
studieplan) is formulated, signed, filed and updated
on a yearly basis
Assigning a supervisor and a deputy supervisor
Assigning an examiner for postgraduate courses given
at the department
Assigning a departmental representative to take part
in the annual appraisal of the students work and the
revision of his/her individual curriculum
large departments the head of department may delegate these
responsibilities to a head of division (avdelningsföreståndare).
to the Higher Education Act postgraduate studies should,
in addition to the goals of undergraduate studies, also
result in such knowledge and abilities that are needed to
be able to carry out research independently.
University has determined a number of more specific goals
for postgraduate studies. These are:
prepare postgraduate students to become independent researchers
or to take on qualified tasks presenting similar challenges
provide students with:
knowledge in a specified research disciplin
knowledge in a specified area of the research discipline
in scientific methods and in critical scientific thinking
in the planning, implementation and evaluation of a research
in solving demanding tasks within certain time limits
Swedish Government has stipulated that that each university
should have a specific plan for ensuring the quality of
all activities at the university. At Lund University such
a quality assurance programme has been adopted for the years
2000-2002, and this document also contains a passage on
postgraduate studies (www.evaluat.lu.se,
There is also a specific quality assurance plan for postgraduate
studies at the university (www.plan.lu.se/kvalitet.html,
Faculty of Science has adopted its own quality assurance
plan for postgraduate studies. It contains, for example,
instructions on how to ensure that studies are carried out
in accordance with current regulations, procedures for the
admission of postgraduate students and how to continually
monitor the quality of the education. It also contains a
discussion on financial support for postgraduate students.
The plan has been formulated in an effort to further improve
the quality of postgraduate studies at the faculty (www.naturvetenskap.lu.se,
their studies most undergraduates encounter postgraduate
students as demonstrators in the lab. In addition, they
will also occasionally meet postgraduate students socially
and this provides an opportunity to gain an insight into
the day-today working conditions of postgraduate students.
Towards the end of their undergraduate studies, students
should consider postgraduate studies as one of the options
for their professional career. The decision to continue
university studies is often based on a personal interest
or fascination in a particular discipline. The final decision
is often made during the degree project, which provides
the student with an opportunity to deepen his or her understanding
of an area, and also provides experience in working in a
research environment. Often, the student may be approached
by a lecturer encouraging postgraduate studies. Approximately
half of the students that are admitted as undergraduates
to a masters programme (magisterexamen)
at the faculty continue on to postgraduate studies. A doctoral
degree provides a good start in a professional career with
greater opportunities for gaining a qualified position in
a job giving personal satisfaction, and allowing further
minimum general requirement for admission to postgraduate
studies is university undergraduate studies amounting to
120 credits (nominally three years full-time studies)
or corresponding knowledge, gained within or outside Sweden.
requirements are specified in the postgraduate studies curriculum
for each postgraduate discipline, which can be found on
the web site of the corresponding department. These requirements
are typically that a certain fraction of undergraduate studies
has been devoted to the discipline and sometimes that a
degree project has been carried out in the discipline. At
most, 160 credits (four years) of undergraduate studies
may be required for admission to postgraduate studies.
studies at the faculty are divided into a number of disciplines.
Each discipline has its own curriculum (allmänn
studieplan) which is approved by the Faculty Board.
A postgraduate student is always admitted to a certain discipline.
government has stipulated that students can only be admitted
to a discipline if there are adequate resources in terms
of supervision, support of research activities and money
for a salary/stipend (see Section 7). All positions for
postgraduate studies should be advertised, except under
special circumstances. There is no common date for applications
to postgraduate studies. The head of department decides
on admission procedures. Applicants are ranked according
to their qualifications.
applicant that is considered not to have the ability to
successfully complete postgraduate studies should not be
admitted, even if he/she has the formal qualifications.
When there are several applicants for a position, the ranking
of the applicants is primarily based on the formal requirements
specified for the discipline. It should be noted that undergraduate
studies exceeding 160 credits (four years) will not automatically
count as an extra merit. It is up to the student whether
he or she decides to extend his/her undergraduate studies
beyond 160 points. The decisive criterion for ranking applicants
is their expected ability to complete their postgraduate
studies. Equal opportunity aspects are also considered.
An additional criterion is the quality of their degree project.
The choice of applicant is made at the department, usually
by a group of supervisors. The formal decision is taken
either by the head of department or by the departmental
content of postgraduate studies is always decided on an
individual basis, and during the admission procedure the
student has the opportunity to influence his or her situation.
The most significant components are the supervisor, the
research project, the type of stipend, departmental work
(outside research activities), opportunities for study and
attending conferences, office and laboratory space and access
to instruments and computers.
the point of view of the department, admitting a postgraduate
student implies a substantial economic commitment. Not only
is the student guaranteed a stipend for effectively four
years, but adequate resources must also be available in
terms of office/laboratory space, research equipment and
consumables, as well as other relevant resources. Financing
is obtained, in part from the faculty, in terms of money
specifically allocated to postgraduate education and in
part through external grants. These grants vary considerably
in character, but they have the common feature that they
are assigned to specific researchers for specific research
projects. When a postgraduate student is totally supported
by external grants, the supervisor and research project
are usually determined by external circumstances. When the
stipend is financed by the faculty appropriation the postgraduate
student has, in principle, greater influence over the choice
of supervisor and the formulation of the research project.
A new postgraduate student has, in reality, the choice between
one or a few specified research projects with given supervisors.
A postgraduate student usually works in very close contact
with his or her supervisor(s), and it is essential that
all parties are sure, at as early a stage as possible, that
good professional cooperation will be possible. The Faculty
of Science has decided that in addition to the official
supervisor at least one deputy supervisor should be assigned
to each student (see Section 14).
a student has accepted a position as a postgraduate, an
individual curriculum should be established as soon as possible.
This is done jointly by the student, the supervisors and
the head of department (or his/her representative).
should be given an informative introduction to their new
workplace. Following admission the postgraduate student
should be given the opportunity to learn more about the
department, its research activities and its personnel. In
conjunction with the formulation of the individual curriculum,
the supervisor and the student should discuss the rights
and obligations of both parties.
basic rule is that admission to postgraduate studies implies
a commitment from the department for some form of stipend
for the equivalent of four years of postgraduate studies.
This commitment is based on a government regulation which,
however, allows exceptions. In such a case, a written contract
between the student and the department should be drawn up,
in which the student guarantees that he or she can support
himself/herself during the full four-year period of postgraduate
studies. The Faculty Board has determined that this type
of arrangement is only acceptable if motivated by special
support for postgraduate students through stipends can take
three basic forms, and may vary as the studies progress.
position as a postgraduate student (anställning
special postgraduate student scholarship (utbildningsbidrag)
to general recommendations issued by the Faculty Board,
postgraduate students should have a position as a postgraduate
student no later than 18 months from the commencement of
their studies. During the first 18 months, the student may
be supported by one or more of the three different forms
Position as postgraduate student
position is full-time with an initial tenure of one year.
At the end of this year the position is renewed without
formal application. The period of appointment may be extended
by a maximum of two years at a time. The position can be
held for a maximum of five years, but the effective time
may not exceed four years of full-time postgraduate studies.
If the student has had another form of stipend the corresponding
time should be deducted when four years have been reached.
The five-year limit can be exceeded under special circumstances,
such as parental leave, extended leave due to illness or
leave for military service. Certain commitments in student
unions and other student organisations also count as special
circumstances for extension of the duration of the position.
all the above cases, the duration of the extension of the
position is limited to the period of absence. Furthermore,
a postgraduate student may hold a position for a maximum
of one year after graduation, provided this is in accordance
with the other limitations stated above.
primary assignment when holding a position as a postgraduate
student is to perform postgraduate studies, but up to 20%
of the students time can be devoted to teaching, research
outside his or her personal research project or administration.
The head of department is ultimately responsible for assigning
this departmental work. Only the fraction of the position
that is devoted to postgraduate studies is counted as the
effective period of postgraduate studies.
to a general agreement, work performed when holding a position
as a postgraduate student should not result in economic
compensation for working time exceeding 40 hours per week.
However, a postgraduate student and the head of department
may have an agreement such that the student devotes up to
one week of extra paid work per year to the department,
consisting of teaching or administration, provided that
the initial 20% has already been completed. Such an agreement
should also contain a written explanation of the special
circumstances that motivate the measure. In the case when
a postgraduate student is needed for additional teaching
or administration, special permission should be granted
by the faculty. A request is to be sent to the Faculty Board
in advance. The faculty is very restrictive in issuing such
of a position as a postgraduate student have the social
benefits and insurance coverage of other employees of Lund
principle, salaries are set individually but there is, within
the faculty, an ambition to harmonize salary levels between
different departments, and in the standard case a locally
agreed salary ladder is applied for postgraduate students.
Together with his or her supervisor, the student should
check that the principles of the salary ladder have been
implemented in his or her individual case.
formal decision regarding a position as a postgraduate student
is taken by the Faculty Board or the body to which this
responsibility has been delegated by the board. There is
no appeal against this decision.
Special postgraduate student scholarships
the onset of postgraduate studies the student may be offered
a special postgraduate student scholarship. This can be
awarded for a maximum of 18 months of effective study time,
after which the student should obtain a position as a postgraduate
student following a formal request.
scholarship is awarded for, at most, 12 months at a time
and the department, together with the student, should apply
for an extension.
special postgraduate student scholarship is awarded to a
minimum of 80% of a full scholarship. An exception to this
rule applies when the general rights for part-time employment
apply, for example, for parents with custody of children
under the age of eight years. In this case the minimum extent
of the scholarship is 50%.
addition to the scholarship, postgraduate students can be
employed as an assistant at the university, a position specific
to holders of postgraduate student scholarships. For a student
with a full scholarship the maximum extent of employment
as an assistant is 10%. The assistantship can cover, at
most, 30% of full-time activity, but in this case the scholarship
should be reduced accordingly. The most common combinations
are 80% scholarship and 20% employment as an assistant or
90% scholarship and 20% as
an assistant. The Faculty Board has recommended that a position
as an assistant should not exceed 20%. In cases when the
scholarship is reduced due to employment as an assistant,
the scholarship period can be extended beyond 18 months,
up to the equivalent of 18 months of full-time studies.
The salary associated with a position as an assistant is
set according to the same principles as for positions as
a postgraduate student, but due to the fact that it is only
part-time, the social benefits are not as good as those
that apply to a position as a postgraduate student.
special postgraduate student scholarship amounts at present
13 000 SEK/month and it is taxed. This amount is decided
by the government and is applied uniformly. The social benefits
are not as extensive as for normal employment. It does allow
for contributions to the pension fund, but it does not contribute
to the basis for paid sick-leave or for unemployment benefit.
For temporary leave due to illness or caring for a child
the student retains the scholarship, rather than claiming
support from the regional social insurance office (försäkringskassan), which pays support for other employees.
It is possible to extend the 18-month period for a scholarship
if the student is absent during a prolonged period, for
example, due to parental leave, illness, military service,
students union engagements or obligations within other
student organisations. The maximum period of postgraduate
studies is prolonged accordingly.
financial support of students awarded the special scholarship
is allowed only under the circumstances that apply for positions
as a postgraduate student.
third form of postgraduate student support is study grants.
This is a grant aimed at covering direct living expenses.
It can only be used to the cover cost of personal education,
and it cannot be paid based on work done for the benefit
of the university. The recipient of the grant may not be
employed, in any way, by the university during the time
the grant is awarded. Even work on an hourly basis is counted
as employment in this case. A study grant is exempt from
tax. There are no social benefits associated with this grant.
head of department is responsible for ensuring that the
grant is generous enough to allow a reasonable standard
of living. The amount should accordingly be high enough
to correspond to the standard amount obtained by holders
of a 100% special postgraduate student scholarship.
formal decision to award a study grant is taken by the Faculty
Board on the initiative of the department. There is no appeal
against this decision.
are a number of different types of study grants.
grant at the initial stage of postgraduate studies
recipient of the grant should be accepted as a postgraduate
student. The grant should initially be awarded for a period
of at least six months. It can be awarded for a maximum
of 18 months. The grant should be publicly announced. It
cannot be financed by funds allocated by the university,
and by external funding only when the supporting agency
study grant cannot be given to a person who has previously
been employed by the university as an assistant (amanuensis)
or a postgraduate student, or has been extensively used
for temporary work, or has held a special postgraduate student
period during which the study grant is paid is deducted
from the duration of employment as a postgraduate student.
grant to support international contacts
grant may be awarded from the special funds available at
the university for the support of international contacts,
with a maximum duration of two years. It can be used either
for personal support of postgraduate studies at a foreign
university or to support non-Swedish postgraduate students
at Lund University.
grant before starting postgraduate studies
certain circumstances, it is possible to receive a study
grant prior to commencing postgraduate studies. Contact
the department concerning this option.
are no set working hours for postgraduate students. It is
assumed that work will be performed at such hours that the
student can complete his or her studies and other obligations
at the department in the most efficient way. Due respect
should be shown to co-workers, supervisors and other personnel
at the department, as well as to undergraduates to
which the student has teaching obligations. The postgraduate
student has the right to a daily rest, vacation and additional
spare time according to the general rules applied to employees.
A postgraduate student is not entitled to extra compensation
for extra hours at work (overtime).
annual vacation for a student holding a position as a postgraduate
student starts, by default, on the Monday following midsummer,
if the head of department is not explicitly notified that
the student wishes to make other arrangements. In the normal
case, there is no need to apply specifically for vacation.
a student wishes to take an extensive vacation at another
time of the year, or if he or she wants to save some vacation
for a coming year, the head of department should be notified
by May 31 at the latest. In this case, it is necessary to
apply for each period of vacation and this application should
be forwarded to the personnel division for registration.
This procedure must to be followed throughout the year.
to present estimates, the yearly cost incurred by the university
in educating a postgraduate student at the Faculty of Science
is around 750,000 SEK (~75,000 US$, Nov. 2001). The major
factors contributing to this cost are:
and laboratory space
costs, centrally at the university and at the faculty
costs in terms of supervision, service, consumables, equipment,
travel, technical and administrative support, etc.
stipend for the postgraduate student
funds covering these costs are derived from several sources.
A substantial part (approximately 50%) comes from the Ministry
of Education, through the university, and the rest from
various external sources such as research councils, foundations,
various government bodies and private industry.
all, postgraduate studies should consist of 160 credits,
where one credit corresponds to one week of full-time studies.
The studies lead to a Doctor of Philosophy degree, PhD.
To be granted a PhD the student must have passed all the
required courses and have successfully defended
a thesis. The thesis is defended orally at a public
examination (disputation). The thesis should correspond to at least to 80 credits,
that is, at least half of the postgraduate studies should
be devoted to the research project.
80 credits have been obtained it is possible to take a Licentiate
The requirements are that the student has passed the courses
specified in the discipline curriculum and, in addition,
produced a scientific dissertation equivalent to at least
40 credits. The dissertation must be approved following
its presentation at a seminar.
the Faculty of Science of Lund University there are a number
of disciplines in postgraduate studies (forskarutbildningsämnen).
At the larger departments several postgraduate disciplines
are usually defined, while at smaller departments there
may be one or two.
Faculty Board determines these disciplines, and this is
regarded as an important part of the facultys research
list of the current postgraduate disciplines can be found
on the facultys web site.
each postgraduate discipline there should be a general curriculum
approved by the Faculty Board, according to the Higher Education
curriculum should contain:
main content of postgraduate studies, specifying compulsory
literature, if any
outline of the organisation of the studies
of the qualifications needed to be eligible for postgraduate
studies in the discipline, over and above the qualifications
needed for postgraduate studies in general
description of the criteria used for ranking applicants
description of the examinations that are included in the
statement as to whether or not postgraduate studies can
be concluded with a Licentiate degree
contents of the discipline curriculum can be obtained from
the department or from its web site.
is explicitly specified in the government regulations that
each postgraduate student must have an individual curriculum
This curriculum should be formulated during the admission
process. An individual curriculum has the form of an agreement
between the student, the supervisor(s) and the head of department,
or a person to which the head of department has delegated
responsibility. The curriculum should be formally approved
by the head of department.
individual curriculum is a very important document. It is
intended to serve as guidelines in helping the student to
plan his or her studies and research project. The curriculum
is also of great help in assessing the progress of the student
and in adapting the ambitions of the research project with
respect to the available time.
individual curriculum is a written document that clearly
specifies the conditions and the goals of the students
postgraduate studies, both in the short and the long term.
The curriculum should contain a time plan for the postgraduate
studies, a plan for financial support of the student, specification
of the obligations of the student and of the supervisor(s),
a description of the research project and its long-term
objectives and, additionally, specification of any particular
requirement necessary to complete the studies efficiently
and successfully. The curriculum should also include a plan
for the postgraduate courses to be taken and a plan
for specified short-term goals.
individual curriculum that is established at the outset
of postgraduate studies is of a provisional nature since
it is impossible to predict how a scientific project will
develop in the longer perspective. For this and other reasons,
the curriculum must be revised regularly, and at least once
a year. More frequent revision can be called for if , for
example, a specific part of the project has been completed
or if serious difficulties have been encountered in the
project. The postgraduate student and the supervisor each
has the right to call for a revision of the individual curriculum
at any time. As part of the revision process the postgraduate
student and the supervisor inform the head of department
(or representative) on the progress made. The revision of
the curriculum may result in an updating of the written
document which should be signed by the student and the supervisor.
is important to realise that the formulation of the individual
curriculum should be a joint effort by the postgraduate
student and the supervisor to establish goals, define reciprocal
expectations and identify methods of achieving the goals.
The individual curriculum is an agreement between three
parties: the student, the supervisor and the department.
signed copy of the individual curriculum should be filed
at the department.
faculty has produced a form for the documentation of individual
curricula and has issued a recommendation that this form
be used. The faculty also recommends that the document be
available electronically, and that it is included in the
National student records
of postgraduate education consists of courses which should
not exceed 80 credits since the thesis represents a minimum
of 80 credits. The precise number of course credits required
varies depending on the postgraduate discipline, and is
specified in the discipline curriculum. Postgraduate courses
can vary in format, ranging from courses consisting of scheduled
lectures, exercises and practicals to courses based on individual
studies of specified literature. It is the ambition of the
Faculty Board to increase the proportion of courses taught
actively. This can be achieved partly within the resources
allocated to the faculty and partly through cooperation
with other universities and institutions both within the
country and abroad.
courses are mandatory for specific disciplines, and these
are specified in the discipline curriculum. Regarding the
remaining course credits, the student is free to suggest
courses relevant to his or her research project or which
provide a broadened understanding of the discipline. The
individual curriculum is an important instrument in planning
the courses to be taken. The Faculty Board recommends that,
if possible, a postgraduate student completes a major part
of the course requirement during the first 18 months of
his or her postgraduate studies. This provides a good basis
for developing the research project and also provides a
knowledge base for improved appreciation of seminars in
the discipline, and for active participation in international
courses, there is no reason to restrict the choice to those
given at ones own department. The choice of research
project determines which courses are relevant and some courses
may perhaps be best taken at another department or even
in another faculty. For most of the research disciplines
within the Faculty of Science there are established contacts
with departments in the engineering and medical faculties.
In addition, we have increasing contact with universities
and institutes in the Copenhagen area and this will, in
due course, result in a broader choice of postgraduate courses.
students can also include credits for courses given outside
their research discipline. The lecturer responsible for
the course assigns the quantitative measure, i.e. the number
of credits, for a course, but the students supervisor
and the director of postgraduate studies for the discipline
decide to what extent these credits can be included in the
required number of credits. To avoid misunderstandings or
conflicts it is important to discuss courses and to what
extent they can be counted at the yearly revision of the
certain circumstances it is also possible for students to
include courses at undergraduate level among the required
courses. This possibility is applied differently for different
research disciplines. It
is the opinion of the Faculty Board that undergraduate courses
that are required for eligibility for postgraduate studies
cannot be included in the number of credits required for
a postgraduate degree. On the other hand, additional courses
may be included. For postgraduate students with a basic
degree from a foreign university with course requirements
clearly exceeding 160 credits it may be possible to include
credits from relevant courses.
faculty arranges two postgraduate courses in teaching skills:
an introductory course and a course in communication skills.
Certain departments arrange pedagogical courses of a more
specialized character and a further deepening of pedagogical
skills can be obtained from courses given by the universitys
Centre for Teaching and Learning (Universitetspedagogiskt
schools are an important form of postgraduate courses. These
are arranged by a range of institutions and can also address
subjects outside of science. Summer schools provide a cost-effective
way of bringing together internationally respected lecturers
and research students from different universities and colleges
during an intensive period of a week or two. In addition
to, hopefully, high-class lectures, summer schools provide
opportunities for making international contacts and meeting
postgraduate students with similar research interests.
purpose of the research project is to improve the skills
of the postgraduate student in a number of respects. These
a scientific problem
for knowledge in a systematic way
and using appropriate scientific methods to solve scientific
and critically examining and analysing results and information
a scientific text and communicating scientific information
how to adopt a scientific attitude usually involves a growth
process which, in addition to talent, also requires time
concrete goal of the research project is to produce sufficient
results, both qualitatively and quantitatively, that they
can form the basis of a thesis within the time limits set,
i.e. a maximum of four years effective studies.
choice of research project is, in principle, free, but in
practice there are several factors, not least of all of
an economical character, that limit the choice. Many postgraduate
students choose a research project that is an integral part
of a broader ongoing research project, which appears stimulating,
exciting and meaningful. In experimental disciplines access
to modern methods and good equipment may constitute a reason
for joining a certain group. It is, generally speaking,
always an advantage to choose a research project that is
connected to ongoing research. In this way, a new postgraduate
student is naturally integrated into a group, and can be
intellectually stimulated by the ideas and thoughts of other
group members. They can also respond to ideas generated
in the students research project. Also, group members
can provide valuable support on the personal level if difficulties
are encountered in the project, or if problems of a more
private nature arise.
doctoral thesis may be written either as a monograph or
as a collection of papers with a summary. A monograph consists
of a coherent text describing the research problem, the
specific scientific questions that are addressed, methods,
results, analysis, discussion and conclusions. The other
kind of thesis is based on a number of scientific papers,
with the student as author or co-author, preceded by a summary,
written by the student, emphasizing the particular
contribution of the student to papers with several authors.
A thesis may contain contributions from more than one postgraduate
student but it is desirable that the specific contributions
of each individual can be distinguished.
a student chooses to write a monograph or to present a collection
of papers with a summary is normally determined by the nature
of the research project and by the tradition of the discipline.
Within the Faculty of Science a summary and a collection
of papers is the most common form. An advantage of this
form is that the papers have already been, or are about
to be, published in international scientific journals. In
this way, one simultaneously ensures exposure of the work
and quality control through the peer review procedure adopted
by most journals.
thesis is, as a rule, written in English. If another language
is to be used this should be stated in the individual curriculum
of the postgraduate student at as early a stage as possible.
is international. In most research areas knowledge is to
be found at different institutes all over the world, and
there is a constant exchange of information, ideas and know-how
between research groups. International contacts and cooperation
are usually very rewarding and valuable and are often a
prerequisite for high-quality science. Research is enriched
by access to new data, other methods, different equipment
and, not least, an intellectually diverse research environment.
It is stimulating and encouraging to have the opportunity
to discuss matters with international researchers and postgraduate
students who are genuinely interested in the project, and
who might provide new approaches to the subject.
is of vital importance that new postgraduate students have
the opportunity to meet the international research community
as soon as possible and to make personal contacts. This
can be achieved by participation in international conferences
in the relevant area and/or by visiting one or more institutes
abroad. Also, summer schools, mentioned in Section 10.5,
provide excellent opportunities to establish international
is also possible to conduct postgraduate studies abroad
while holding a position as a postgraduate student. This
requires the agreement of the students supervisor
and the consent of the head of department. It should also
be ensured that the arrangement is in accordance with the
conditions laid down by any external agency financing the
is possible to apply for funds from the EU to finance visits
to other EU countries.
Socrates & Erasmus
European Dimension and Lifelong Learning is a European project
within the area of education. This provides several options
for applying for money. Erasmus is one of the subprogrammes
of Socrates, which is geared towards higher learning involving
undergraduate students, postgraduate students and teachers.
Student and teacher exchange programs
students can apply for funds in the general exchange programme.
An EU stipend, which can be combined with a position as
a postgraduate student, is intended to cover travelling
costs and extra expenses due to the difference in the cost
of living in the students home country and the country
he or she is visiting. Support can also be provided
to a lecturer giving a course, typically during a short
period, which is part of the official programme of a cooperating
university in another European country. Postgraduate
students are also eligible for the lecturer exchange programme.
students can apply for Marie Curie Host Fellowships at Marie
Curie Training Sites through the 5th EU framework
programme. Postgraduate students can obtain support to carry
out part of their research project in another European country.
Examples of other sources of finance
Swedish Institute has an extensive programme for supporting
postgraduate students and young researchers. Postgraduate
students can apply to Nordplus for exchange studies within
the Nordic countries. There are also a number of specific
funds at Lund University. Information can be found at webbstip.stu.lu.se
and additional information is available at www.lu.se/intsek/EU/eu.html.
Faculty of Science has a secretary for international affairs
who can inform postgraduate students on the possibility
of obtaining funding for studies abroad.
courses taken as part of postgraduate studies should be
registered. The degree of activity as a postgraduate student
is also registered, based on the financing of the studies.
student who takes a course outside Lund University should
ensure that it is registered at his or her own department.
This can be done through the issue of a certificate by the
lecturer giving the course. The certificate should specify
the name of the student, personal number (personnummer),
the name of the course, the grade, number of credits, date
that are also given for undergraduates are sometimes mistakenly
registered as part of an undergraduate education. This is
easily remedied by requesting a specific certificate, as
describe above, so that the department can register the
students should contact the Administration Office (Kansli N) well in advance (>3 months) in order to book a date for
the defence of their thesis. A written notification specifying
the title of thesis, external examiner, members of the examining
committee and additional appropriate information should
be issued by the department and sent to the relevant body
(appointments board or research committee in the case of
chemistry). This should be done at least two months prior
to the proposed date to allow time for the relevant body
to take the formal decisions necessary.
date and place of the thesis defence are announced by the
Administration Office at least three weeks in advance. When
the official announcement is made (spikning)
the prescribed number of copies of the thesis should be
available. The aim is to make the content of the thesis
publicly known and available within the research community.
The announcement is made on the universitys public
notice board and also on the electronic notice board of
the University Library, where the time and place of the
defence are given together with an abstract of the thesis,
a popular scientific summary and the names of the external
examiner and the members of the examining committee. In
conjunction with the formal announcement the thesis should
be distributed to interested parties. The postgraduate
student should also deliver two copies of the thesis to
the Administration Office. (For further practical information,
contact Inga-Britt Knutsson tel. 046- 222 7187, Inga-Britt.Knutsson@KansliN.lu.se).
thesis is defended at a public seminar, at which copies
of the thesis should also be available. The examining committee
has three or five members who are appointed by the relevant
appointments board (lärarförslagsnämnden)
or in the case of chemistry, the research committee (forskningsnämnden) together with the external examiner and the
chairman for the occasion. For practical reasons, it may
also be prudent to assign a deputy member to the examining
task of the external examiner (opponenten)
is to carefully scrutinize the thesis and present a short
evaluation of the thesis during the defence. The external
examiner should not be a staff member at the faculty. The
has the right to chose between Swedish, Danish, Norwegian
or English as the language to be used by him/her at the
defence. This choice can limit the choice of possible external
proceedings are opened by the chairman who starts by explaining
some of the formalities of the thesis defence, such as the
language to be used, and then presents the student, gives
the title of the thesis, and introduces the external examiner
and the members of the examining committee. The student
then has the opportunity to inform those present of typographical
or other corrections to the thesis. The external examiner
and/or the student then provides an overview of the scientific
area, placing the thesis in the context of current research,
and also describing in more specific terms the main scientific
results of the research. This introduction is followed by
a more detailed discussion of the thesis in which the external
examiner asks questions and gives his points of view on
the scientific relevance of the research, the suitability
of the methods used and the validity/relevance of the results.
The student should be given ample opportunity to answer,
defend and explain. The members of the examining committee
then have the opportunity to put questions to the student.
The members of the audience are then given the opportunity
to ask questions and make comments, in the order decided
by the chairman. Finally, the public part of the thesis
defence is concluded and the examining committee retires
examining committee consists of either three or five members.
If the research is of such a character that three members
cannot be expected to have the knowledge required to penetrate
all the relevant parts of the work, then it is more appropriate
that the committee consist of five members. The members
are appointed by the relevant appointments board (or
the research committee in the case of chemistry) following
suggestions by the department. At least one of the members
of the committee must have an affiliation outside the faculty.
The students supervisor should not be a member of
the committee unless there are extenuating circumstances.
The committee appoints a chairman internally.
the examining committee meets after the defence, the external
examiner and the official supervisor should also be present.
If the committee so decides, the presence of the deputy
supervisor can also be requested. Only the members of the
committee have a vote in the grading of the thesis. The
main task of the committee is to judge whether or not the
thesis meets the scientific standard expected of a postgraduate
thesis in the field. To take a formal decision, all members
of the committee must be present. The committee takes a
majority vote and the thesis is graded as either passed
or failed. It is rare that a thesis is not passed.
minutes of the meeting of the examining committee contain
information on the date of the defence, the name of the
student, the title of the thesis and, when applicable, also
the title in English, the extent of the thesis in credits,
the formal name of the research discipline, the names of
the members of the examining committee, specifying the chairman,
the name of the external examiner, the name of the official
supervisor and finally the grade awarded to the thesis.
If the voting of the committee was not unanimous, the member
or members not agreeing with the majority have the right
to have this noted in the minutes, but not their motivation.
In general, the minutes should not contain any motivation
for the decision or other opinions of the members of the
committee regarding the thesis. If the thesis is graded
as failed, the committee should present their motivation
for the decision. If a member of the committee disagrees
with this decision, he/she has the right, in this case,
not only to make his/her opinion official, but also to give
his/her reasons. If the thesis is not passed the official
supervisor also has the right to make a statement in the
year at the end of May, there is an official degree ceremony
in which doctors of the university have the opportunity
to participate (doktorspromotion). This is a formal ceremony which takes place at
the cathedral and the university invites all doctors who
have successfully defended their theses prior to a fixed
date in May. The practical organisation is managed by the
ceremonial master of the university (övermarskalken) from whom information about the arrangements
can be obtained.
The Licentiate Degree
Licentiate is a degree involving scientific training, but
to a lesser extent than a PhD. The degree requires 80 credits,
of which at least 40 should be devoted to a dissertation
The specific requirements are given in the general curriculum
of each discipline.
licentiate dissertation should consist of either, at least
one scientific paper accompanied by a short summary, or
a comprehensive scientific text. The scientific level should
meet the standards expected for a paper published in an
international journal with a peer review procedure. The
subject of the licentiate project is specified in the students
thesis is printed or duplicated in some other way, and the
department covers the cost of this. The student has the
right to 20 copies for private use.
licentiate dissertation is presented at a public seminar,
at which copies of the dissertation should be available
for scrutiny. Under special circumstances the relevant appointments
board (research board) can allow exceptions to this rule.
The dissertation should be available for inspection at all
the departments within the scientific area at Lund University
at least three weeks prior to the seminar, and at all departments
in the same discipline throughout the country. The students
department ensures that the dissertation is properly distributed.
Two copies of the thesis should be sent to the University
of the seminar should be sent to the Administration Office
three weeks and three days in advance. The notification,
signed by the official examiner, should contain the following
title of thesis
name of the official supervisor
time and location of the seminar
and when the dissertation is available
members of the examining committee
dissertation is graded as passed or failed by the official
examiner after consulting the examining committee, which
consists of two members. The examining committee is appointed
by the departmental board or a person to which the board
has delegated this duty. The minutes of the meeting of the
examining committee are entered on a dedicated form, and
sent to the Administration Office immediately after the
degree normally awarded is a PhD (fil.
dr) or a Licentiate degree (fil.
lic). If a student so wishes, and is eligible, he or
she has the right to a different specification, for example,
a PhD in Engineering (tekn. dr). Consent to this can be given by the relevant appointments
board (research committee) in conjunction with the notification
of thesis defence or licentiate seminar.
obtain a Licentiate degree (at least 80 credits in total)
the student must have completed the required courses and
have presented an approved dissertation equivalent to at
least 40 credits, at a seminar.
obtain a PhD degree (160 credits in all) a thesis equivalent
to at least 80 credits must be defended and the thesis approved.
In addition, the course requirements must be fulfilled.
The successful completion of all the required courses must
be reported in LADOK
before a degree certificate can be obtained.
degree certificate can be obtained from the Division for
Student Affairs, Office of Diplomas (Studerandeenheten,
the course of postgraduate studies there is close interaction
between the supervisor and the postgraduate student. This
can be very rewarding, but can also give rise to conflicts.
a postgraduate student is admitted, an official supervisor
is appointed. The official supervisor should be a senior
and have a tenured research position at the faculty, according
to a decision taken by the Faculty Board. In practice, this
means that the official supervisor is a senior lecturer
or a professor. Under certain circumstances, it is desirable
that a researcher who has a more temporary affiliation to
the faculty be extensively involved in postgraduate student
supervision. This applies, for example, to postdoctoral
fellows (forskarassistenter) and adjunct professors (visiting scientists from
industry or society). However, there must always be an official
supervisor who is responsible for ensuring that the student
completes his or her postgraduate education successfully.
In this case, the more actively involved supervisor is assigned
as deputy supervisor.
Faculty Board has decided that, in addition to the official
supervisor, there should be at least one deputy supervisor
for each postgraduate student. The deputy supervisor can,
as in the case described above, take a very active role
and lead the project, but it is also possible for the deputy
supervisor to only take part in the planning of the project
in conjunction with establishing and developing the students
individual curriculum. A deputy supervisor can also play
a leading role in a specific aspect of the research project
as an expert in a certain area. There are no formal requirements
for deputy supervisors and he or she may be affiliated to
another university, be employed in industry or in the public
general task of the supervisor is to guide and encourage
the postgraduate student in the research project and to
act as an advisor with respect to the choice of courses
and the direction of the research. The supervisor should
ensure that the student makes satisfactory progress, and
that the student uses his/her resources suitably. The examiner
for the discipline is ultimately responsible for ensuring
that postgraduate education within that discipline is maintained
at a satisfactory level, but it is the task of the supervisor
to ensure that the standards are met in each specific case.
the choice of supervisor, one should consider the importance
of role models with respect to gender.
practice, it is the official supervisor and/or the deputy
supervisor who formulate the research project at the beginning
of the students postgraduate studies. The student
may also take an active part at this stage, but the responsibility
rests on the supervisor to ensure that the task is realistic
with respect to the time and other resources available.
At the yearly revision of the individual curriculum it will
be natural for the postgraduate student to take a more active
part in determining the course of the remaining part of
the research in the project, but the supervisor must ensure
that the plans are realistic.
is the responsibility of the supervisor to ensure that the
postgraduate student receives an adequate introduction to
the methods to be use in his/her research. However, science
is difficult. There must be a point at which the student
is left to himself/herself to solve difficulties arising
during the project. Too much supervision is as undesirable
as too little. One of the challenges of supervision is to
strike the right balance between these two extremes.
head of department has the ultimate responsibility for safety
in the workplace, but the supervisor must ensure that the
postgraduate student is not exposed to unnecessary danger
during his/her research. It is important that existing rules
and regulations be respected. Additionally, during the unusual
situations that can occur during research the supervisor
must ensure that the safety of the postgraduate student
and others is not jeopardized.
postgraduate student should have access to his or her supervisor.
This can be arranged through scheduled group meetings and
discussion times, but equally well through spontaneous contact.
During extended absences of either the supervisor or the
student it is possible to keep in touch via e-mail. If the
student is involved in experimental work or field studies
at a location away from the supervisor for an extended period
(>2 months) the Faculty Board recommends that a local
supervisor be assigned to the postgraduate student to whom
he or she can turn for advice in matters of immediate practical
most cases, a postgraduate student works rather closely
with his or her supervisor and it is natural that during
a period of four to five years some disagreement may arise.
The heart of the conflict may be anything from purely personal
matters over disappointment regarding the guidance of one
or the performance of the other, to a purely scientific
disagreement. It is common that conflicts contain an element
of all three ingredients. It is primarily up to the parties
involved to sort out the problems and only when this has
failed is there reason to involve a third party. The head
of department is in charge of the professional activities
within the department and has the primary responsibility
to take action. In more serious conflicts the recommended
course of action depends strongly on the essence of the
conflict. If it involves allegations of sexual or ethnic
harassment, or if an individual finds himself/herself badly
treated by others (mobbing)
the conflict should be handled as prescribed by university
regulations and as specified by the Faculty Board. If the
conflict has its roots in profound personality clashes the
alternative of appointing a new supervisor should be considered
(see below). The consequence of this may be a change in
the research project. If the cause of the disagreement is
related to a difference in scientific opinion or a scientific
priority an impartial third party can be engaged as a mediator.
The postgraduate student may easily feel that he/she is
at a disadvantage and the impartial mediator should thus
be chosen with care.
postgraduate student who is of the opinion that he/she has
not been treated in a professionally correct way at the
department can contact a range of organisations for help.
These include Naturvetenskapliga
doktorandrådet (NDR) at the faculty, the
postgraduate ombudsman (doktorandombudsman)
Doktorandkår (LDK) and the Board for Postgraduate
Studies at the faculty. It is up to the student to decide
which of these organisations he/she feels it is most appropriate
to approach. Factual information concerning rules and regulations
can be obtained from all of these organisations.
decision as to whether a matter should lead to further action
rests with the postgraduate student. Personal information
is, as far as is possible, kept confidential.
opposite consequence of the close professional contact between
a postgraduate student and his or her supervisor is the
development of an intimate personal relationship. The supervisor
is in a position where he/she has to take formal decisions
about the postgraduate student and his/her colleagues. The
impartial character of such decisions cannot be guaranteed
under such circumstances. A similar, questionable situation
would arise if a close relative (e.g. a parent or sibling)
were to be assigned as the students supervisor.
to a recommendation of the Faculty Board a close relative
or a partner of the postgraduate student is not eligible
as either official or deputy supervisor. It is, furthermore,
recommended that a new supervisor be appointed if too close
a personal relationship develops between the student
and the supervisor.
shows that postgraduate education is usually brought to
completion under the guidance of the initially appointed
supervisor. However, there are a number of circumstances
that may call for a new supervisor to be assigned to the
student. Some of these have been discussed above. Additional
cases are if the supervisor should die or become so ill
that he/she is unable to complete the assignment. It is
more common for a supervisor to be given new assignments
within the university, to move to another university, or
take a job in industry or in the public sector. Sometimes,
one simply finds that the research project is unsuitable
for the student and a change of supervisor is motivated
by a change of research project.
an official supervisor leaves his position permanently or
temporarily for a period exceeding one year, the head of
department should call a meeting in order to revise the
individual curricula of the students that are affected.
At this meeting the question of who is the most suitable
official supervisor under the circumstances should be discussed.
Whatever the results of this discussion, a suitable person
should be appointed who is given the status of at least
deputy supervisor. If the postgraduate student has recently
started his/her studies, a change in the research project
and official supervisor should be seriously considered.
It is the responsibility of the head of department to ensure
that such an alternative is available. A similar situation
may occur when a deputy supervisor, such a postdoctoral
fellow, leaves. Also in this case, meetings should be held
with the postgraduate students affected for a revision of
their individual curricula.
the wish arises to change a supervisor for internal reasons,
it is up to the person requesting the change to call a meeting
for the revision of the individual curriculum and the head
of department, or his deputy, should also be asked to participate.
A postgraduate student can demand a change of supervisor
and it is the task of the head of department to meet this
demand. The student can also ask for a change in the research
project. The extent to which these demands can be met is
a matter for discussion at the meeting. The general rule
is that a drastic change in research project can only be
made within the first 18 months of the commencement of postgraduate
studies. If the supervisor is changed at a later stage,
only a redirection of the remaining research activities
should be involved. A practical complication, which applies
to the majority of the research projects in the faculty,
is that there is often a strong financial connection between
the supervisor and the students research project.
The supervisor has usually obtained funding for the research
from external sources and he or she is responsible for accounting
for the funds through results obtained within the project.
In addition, in the application the supervisor has presented
a scientifically innovative idea and he/she thus has legitimate
intellectual rights to the project and its results. In reality,
a change of supervisor without a change of project can be
a very complex process.
postgraduate student is admitted to postgraduate studies
in a certain discipline. At the time of admission both parties
make certain commitments that apply until the student obtains
his or her degree, or four years of study have elapsed.
postgraduate studies a student may decide that an alternative
occupation is more suitable, with the consequence that he/she
wishes to terminate his/her studies. It is possible to give
up a postgraduate student scholarship and a study grant
with immediate effect. It is not possible to have these
types of support simultaneously with a salary from another
position. A position as a postgraduate student (or assistant)
can be given up with one months notice. A postgraduate
student may also wish to take a temporary break from his
or her studies. In this case, the student should apply to
the Faculty Board. This application must be approved by
the students supervisor and the head of department.
Temporary leave does not automatically make the student
eligible for a corresponding extension of his/her position
as a postgraduate student, and in their formal decision
the Faculty Board should specify the conditions that will
apply when the student resumes his/her studies. Normally,
leave is only approved for a period of less than one year.
For leave exceeding this duration the postgraduate student
is considered to have violated the agreement specified in
the individual curriculum and economic support and supervision
may be withdrawn.
admitting a postgraduate student the department makes a
commitment to educate the student during four years of full-time
studies so that he/she can meet the standards required for
a doctoral degree. If, after admission, the supervisors
and the head of department come to the conclusion that the
student does not have the personal resources to successfully
complete postgraduate studies this should be communicated
to the student as soon as possible, and not later than 18
months after the commencement of studies. As the procedure
for admitting students is very meticulous this measure is
taken only very rarely. The postgraduate student has the
right to continue his/her postgraduate studies despite the
advice of the supervisors and head of department, and he/she
should be given full material and intellectual support as
specified in the individual curriculum.
rare circumstances the department has the right to withdraw
supervision and other resources. This may happen if the
postgraduate student deviates extensively from the agreements
formulated in the individual curriculum and if he/she does
not have a position as a postgraduate student or a postgraduate
student scholarship. The head of department then has the
authority to rule that the student no longer has the right
to supervision and other resources related to postgraduate
studies. Prior to this decision, the student and the supervisor
should be given the opportunity to present the students
case. The final decision should be based on these arguments
and other written material relevant to the case. In the
decision, it should be explicitly considered whether or
not the head of department has fulfilled the commitments
stated in the individual curriculum. The decision must be
presented in writing with a motivation.
student can apply to regain the right to supervision and
other resources. In support of the application the student
should provide additional academic achievements or other
circumstances that make it probable that he/she will be
able to fulfil the commitments stated in the individual
curriculum. If this application is turned down the student
may appeal to the Board of Appeals (överklagandenämnden).
is rare for a university to take disciplinary measures against
a postgraduate student. The formal rules are given in the
Higher Education Ordinance. Circumstances that may lead
to disciplinary measures are: if a student should employ
irregular procedures during examinations, or on other occasions
when his/her academic performance is measured, if a student
obstructs teaching, examination or other activities, causes
a disturbance at the library or other such department at
the university, or subjects another student or employee
at the university to sexual harassment. Disciplinary measures
must be taken no less than two years after the misconduct.
suspicions of such misconduct as specified above should
be communicated to the Vice-chancellor (rektor)
of the university. The Vice-chancellor then initiates an
investigation and the accused student is given the opportunity
to defend himself/herself against the accusation. The Vice-chancellor,
after consulting a legal expert if necessary, then decides
whether to dismiss the case, issue a warning to the student
or refer the case to the disciplinary committee its consideration.
measures include a warning or suspension. Suspension means
that the student is not allowed to take part in lectures,
examinations or other teaching activities within the university.
The measure may relate to one or more occasions, but suspension
may only be for a maximum total duration of six months.
Suspension may also be restricted to a ban on visits to
certain premises belonging to the university.
certain circumstances, postgraduate studies can be terminated
upon the initiative of the university. This can happen if
the student suffers from mental illness, abuses alcohol
or drugs, or has committed a serious crime. Another reason
for termination is that there is a substantial risk that
the student may cause injury to other persons or valuable
property. Cases concerning termination of postgraduate studies
are decided by the University Suspension Board (Högskolans avskiljandenämnd).
deals with gaining and communicating new knowledge. Empirical
investigations and theoretical considerations form the basis
of this process. During this process, which starts with
the formulation of a problem, the performance of the investigations,
analysis of the results and finally the formulation of a
report, there are a number of stages when ethical aspects
must be considered. High-quality research also requires
that it is carried out in an ethically acceptable fashion
in all respects.
certain areas of science the choice of the area of research
has ethical implications and the postgraduate student and
the supervisor should discuss this aspect before starting
the research. It is a general rule that the original data
be saved so that they can be made available for scrutiny
after publication. The documentation of research conducted
as an employee is not private property, but belongs to the
university. When publishing and distributing results it
is not permissible to select material with the purpose of
supporting a certain view. One should also acknowledge previous
studies relevant to the investigation so that the new results
can be considered in the context of previous knowledge.
The supervisor, other collaborators and, if applicable,
agencies providing economic support who have a stake in
the investigation, should give their consent to publication.
Furthermore, the publication should clearly communicate
the various contributions to the research project, either
in the form of co-authorship or through acknowledgements.
forms of fraud in scientific research and scientific reporting
constitute a serious offence and may result in suspension
and prosecution. Examples of fraud are distortion or fabrication
of data, manipulation of instruments, theft of results from
colleagues and plagiarizing the text of other authors.
at the university have the intellectual right to their results,
which, for example, implies that they can personally apply
for a patent based on the results obtained from their research
at the university. (In industry it is usually the employer
that has the primary patent rights). There is no formal
difference between a supervisor and a postgraduate student.
The right to patent rests with the individual or individuals
who have made the intellectual contribution.
the academic world, there are also less formal aspects of
intellectual rights connected with the system of establishing
academic merit. This issue becomes apparent when deciding
who and in which order the authors names should appear
on a publication. The way in which this issue is handled
varies between disciplines and research groups, and there
are no generally applicable rules. In order to avoid problems
in the publication of work, the postgraduate student is
advised to find out what the common practise is in his/her
particular discipline at an early stage. It should be noted
that there are essential creative aspects in all stages
of a scientific investigation. These include formulating
the project, planning the project, carrying out the investigation,
interpreting the results and producing a final report. An
author has an intellectual responsibility for the entire
content of a report and he/she is expected to have made
an essential creative contribution to at least one of the
phases of the project.
to government regulations concerning students unions,
and student associations at universities, membership of
a student association is obligatory for all students, including
postgraduate students. The Students Unions in Lund
i Lund) includes Akademiska
Föreningen (AF) so students must also be a member
of AF. In these respects, there is no difference between undergraduate
and postgraduate students. In addition, postgraduate students
in research disciplines existing before 1977 must be a member
of a student nation.
This applies to nearly all research disciplines within the
Faculty of Science.
department is charged with the task of checking that postgraduate
students have taken out membership of the relevant student
association each time information is registered in LADOK,
and at least once per term.
students at the university can influence activities at the
university through representation on boards, committees
and in working groups.
undergraduate and postgraduate students can be represented
on boards and committees dealing with matters not specifically
concerned with postgraduate education, and an effort is
made to share the responsibility. The central organisation
for cooperation is Lunds
Universitets Studentkårer (LUS), which consists
of representatives from the students unions of the
different faculties, the Students Union at the Lund
Institute of Technology (Teknologkåren
vid LTH) and The Lund University Postgraduate Students
Union (Lunds Doktorandkår, LDK).
postgraduate students at six of the seven faculties of the
university belong to the Lund Postgraduate Students
Union (Lunds Doktorandkår,
LDK). This union provides advice and information to
its members and actively monitors postgraduate education
at the university, as well as nationally. LDK
has approximately 2100 members.
has a board and an assembly which are mainly responsible
for issues of a general nature, while questions specific
to a particular faculty are handled by the unions active
at each faculty.
important task of LDK is to advise, inform and support individual postgraduate students.
There is a full-time postgraduate ombudsman (doktorandombudsman) who has the task of dealing with personal
issues and who can act as a mediator between postgraduate
students and a supervisor/department when necessary.
detailed information can be found on their homepage www.ldk.lu.se
concerning postgraduate students which are specific to the
science faculty are handled by the Scientific Postgraduate
Students Union (Naturvetenskapliga Doktorandrådet, NDR). The most important
task of NDR is
to guard the interests of the postgraduate students at the
Faculty of Science with respect to the quality of education
and supervision and the availability of resources. Another
important task is informing postgraduate students on issues
relevant to their studies.
is composed of representatives elected by students at each
department; one ordinary and one deputy member from each
department. These representatives in turn elect a chairman
and deputy chairman who have the task of organising NDR
meetings (as a rule at least one per term) and leading these
meetings, checking that decisions have been implemented,
organising elections to LDK (the board and assembly), and organising elections to boards and
committees on which LDK
representatives from the departments have the important
task of communicating questions and problems discussed locally
to the wider community of LDK.
Conversely, they should also communicate issues discussed
at LDK meetings
to their fellow colleagues at the department.
as a postgraduate student
Working Environment Committee
of Philosophy, PhD
fellow (US Assistant professor)
for Postgraduate Studies
Faculty of Science
for Undergraduate Education